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Information resources supporting research in sociology

ASA Style Resources

Citing Sources in ASA Style

Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first.

In-Text quotations:

-Short quotations in the body of the manuscript should be surrounded by quotation marks.

-Block quotations (direct quotations of more than 40 words) should be offset from the main text and may be single-spaced. Do not include quotation marks with block quotes.

-Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon (note that in the in-text citation, there is no space between the colon and the page number.

Example: "As tabulated by Kuhn (Kuhn 1970:71) the results show..."


-you need to use citations whenever you use another source in your text, even if you are paraphrasing 

-in ASA you need to cite the page number you paraphrased from just like a regular quotation.



Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication.  “Article title.” Name of Publication Volume Number Page Range.


Print article

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Marital Disruption and Depression in a Community Sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51

Online article

Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003.  “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” “Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis.” 11(1) Retrieved December 12, 2006 (



Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication. Book Title Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher):   publisher name

Chapter in an edited book

Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication. ”chapter title”. page range book title volume/issue editor Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): publisher name


One author

Mason, Karen. 1974. Women's Labor Force Participation Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

Multiple authors

Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington Books.

Chapter in an edited book

Clausen, John. 1972. ”The Life Course of Individuals.” Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

APA Style Citation Resources


This guide includes examples of APA style end-of-text references for books and articles and in-text references. Use the resources linked below for information on end-of-text references for other materials and formats.

In-Text Citations

Any time a source is directly quoted or paraphrased it needs to be cited within the text, in addition to appearing in the list of references.

Direct Quote: You will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number of the quote.

  • Tilley (2001) describes the process of apprenticeship as "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (p. 205).
  • She stated, "watching and learning, then coaching followed by hands-on practice" (Tilley, 2001, p. 205), is the best process for effective apprenticeship.

Paraphrasing: APA requires that, with paraphrasing, the author and year of publication be included in the in-text citation. The inclusion of the page number is not required but is encouraged.

  • Muddiman (1995) points out that with new emerging technologies there is a shift from knowledge to skills within librarianship.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.



Print Article

Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 507-516.


Online Article

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.225




Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available)


Chapter in an edited book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI (if available)



One author

Shields, C. J. (2006). Mockingbird: A portrait of Harper Lee. Henry Holt.


Multiple authors

Anson, C. M., Schwegler, R. A., & Muth, M. F. (2000). The Longman writer's companion. (4th ed).  Longman.


Chapter in an edited book

Smith, P. M. (2006). The diverse librarian. In E. Connor (Ed.). An introduction to reference services in academic libraries. (pp. 137-140). Haworth Press.

Comparison chart of citation managers