A citation or reference is the information given in a bibliography or a database about a particular title, which often includes:
Citations give credit to those whose ideas have contributed to your research and give your readers enough information to locate the sources you used. There are many ways to format citations. The style you choose depends on your field and the requirements set by your professor or publisher.
Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication. “Article title.” Name of Publication Volume Number Page Range.
Aseltine, Robert H., Jr. and Ronald C. Kessler. 237-51
Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey.
Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication. Book Title Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): publisher name
Author last name, Author first name and Initial. Year of Publication. ”chapter title”. page range book title volume/issue editor Publisher’s city and state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): publisher name
Mason, Karen. 1974. Women's Labor Force Participation Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.
Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington Books.
Clausen, John. New York: Russell Sage.
Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when quoting directly from a work or referring to specific passages. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first.
-Short quotations in the body of the manuscript should be surrounded by quotation marks.
-Block quotations (direct quotations of more than 40 words) should be offset from the main text and may be single-spaced. Do not include quotation marks with block quotes.
-Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon (note that in the in-text citation, there is no space between the colon and the page number.
Example: "As tabulated by Kuhn (Kuhn 1970:71) the results show..."
-you need to use citations whenever you use another source in your text, even if you are paraphrasing
-in ASA you need to cite the page number you paraphrased from just like a regular quotation.
-American Sociological Association style formatting requirements: