Citations give credit to those whose ideas have contributed to your research and give your readers enough information to locate the sources you used. There are many ways to format citations. The style you use depends on your field and the requirements set by your professor or publisher.
Any time a source is directly quoted or paraphrased it needs to be cited within the text, in addition to appearing in the list of references.
Direct Quote: You will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number of the quote.
Paraphrasing: APA requires that, with paraphrasing, the author and year of publication be included in the in-text citation. The inclusion of the page number is not required but is encouraged.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Capital after colon. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page Range. URL or DOI
Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 507-516.
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.225
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Capital for subtitle. (Edition ed.). Place of Publication: Publisher Name.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.). Title of book. (Page Range). Place of Publication: Publisher Name.
Shields, C. J. (2006). Mockingbird: A portrait of Harper Lee. New York, NY: Henry Holt.
Anson, C. M., Schwegler, R. A., & Muth, M. F. (2000). The Longman writer's companion. (4th ed). New York: Longman.
Smith, P. M. (2006). The diverse librarian. In E. Connor (Ed.). An introduction to reference services in academic libraries. (pp. 137-140). Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.