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MLA Citation Guide (MLA 9th edition) CGS

Citing vs. Reproducing

Citing Information from an Image, Infographic, Chart, Table or Graph (not reproducing it)

This happens if you only cite information from an image, infographic, chart, table, or graph and do not reproduce it in your paper. If you're only citing information from an image, infographic, Chart, Table or Graph:

  1. Provide an in-text citation. Use the citation format of the source where the image is found. (e.g., if you find the image on a website, use the in-text citation of a website). 
  2. Cite the image in your Works Cited List. Use the citation format of the source where the image is found. (e.g., if you found the image on a website, cite the website). 

 

Reproducing Images, Infographics, Charts, Tables & Graphs‚Äč

Reproducing happens when you copy or recreate an image, infographic, table, graph, or chart that is not your original creation. If you reproduce one of these works in your assignment, you must create a note (or "caption") underneath the photo, image, chart, graph, or table to show where you found it. If you do not refer to it anywhere else in your assignment, you do not have to include the citation for this source in a Works Cited list. 

Citing Images, Charts, Tables & Graphs

Inserting Stock Photos and Images from Websites

If you are including stock photos (e.g., from Flickr, Pixabay, Unsplash) or images from websites:

  • Under the image, add a figure number (e.g., Fig. 1.) and short description. 
  • Add the full citation after the description. Follow the citation template for a website. For sources with individual authors, do not invert the first and last names at the beginning of the citation.
  • Follow the citation, if applicable, with any Creative Commons (e.g., CC BY) or copyright notes (e.g., reproduced with permission from author).
  • If the image is not cited in the text of your assignment, you do not need to include it in your Works Cited list.  

Note: It's important to be aware of copyright when using images from a website. Even if you include a citation, certain images still require the permission of the author before you can copy and include it in your work. Always check the terms of use of the image/website to ensure that you can include the image in your work and/or if you need to first get the copyright holder's permission. 

 

Example

Toronto: Union Station

Fig. 3. City of Toronto. "Toronto: Union Station."  Flickr, 1 June 2010, flic.kr/p/fZDBFK. CC-BY.

Your Photographs & Images

If your photograph or image is publicly accessible online, such as on a website, social media, or blog:

  • Under the image, add a figure number (e.g., Fig. 1.) and short description. 
  • Add the full citation after the description. Follow the citation template for your source. For example, if you're citing your image which is posted on a website, use the template for citing infographics posted on a website. For sources with individual authors, do not invert the first and last names at the beginning of the citation.
  • If the image is not cited in the text of your assignment, you do not need to include it in your Works Cited list.  

If your photograph or image is not publicly accessible:

  • Add a caption below your photograph with a figure number and image description (e.g., Fig. 1. CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario).
  • There is no need to credit yourself as the author of the photograph. Library recommendation: If you'd like to make it clear that you created the image, you may add a note in the caption. (e.g., Fig. 1. CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, photograph by author)

Inserting an Image Reproduced from a Library Database

If you are recreating visual material from a library database:

  • Under the image, add a figure number (e.g., Fig. 1.) and short description. 
  • Add the full citation after the description. Follow the citation template for your source. For example, if you're citing an infographic from a website, use the template for citing infographics posted on a website. For sources with individual authors, do not invert the first and last names at the beginning of the citation.
  • If the image is not cited in the text of your assignment, you do not need to include it in your Works Cited list.  

 

Example

Yellow printed skirt by designer Annakiki. Faces on skirt.

Fig. 2. Pauline Cheung. "Short Skirt S/S/ 15 China Womenswear Commercial Update." WGSN, 4 June 2016, p. 2. 

Inserting an Image Reproduced from a Book

If you are recreating visual material from a book:

  • Under the image, add a figure number (e.g., Fig. 1.) and short description. 
  • Add the full citation after the description. Follow the citation template for your source. For example, if you're citing an infographic from a website, use the template for citing infographics posted on a website. For sources with individual authors, do not invert the first and last names at the beginning of the citation.
  • If the image is not cited in the text of your assignment, you do not need to include it in your Works Cited list.  

 

Example

Black and white male figure exercising

Fig. 1. Annie Green. "Yoga: Stretching Out." Sports Digest, 8 May 2006, p. 22. 

Inserting a Table

If you copy or recreate a table that you found in your source:

  • Start by adding a label for your table (e.g., Table 1, bolded and aligned to the left)
  • On the next line, provide a caption for the table, most often the table title.
  • Below the table, add the word "Source" followed by colon and the full citation for the source where you found the information. For example, if you found the information on a website, use the Works Cited list citation format for citing a website. For sources with individual authors, do not invert the first and last names at the beginning of the citation.
  • If the table is not cited in the text of your assignment, you do not need to include it in your Works Cited list.  

 

Example

Table 1

Variables in Determining Victims and Aggressors

Variables  Non-aggressive victims Aggressive victims Non-victimized aggressors
Mother’s affection t = -2.69 
(df = 80, p = .01)
t = -2.16
(df = 33, p = .04)
t = -1.94
(df = 71, p = .06)
Father’s affection t = -.97
(df = 73, p = .34)
t = -1.58
(df = 31, p = .13)
t = -3.16
(df = 69, p = .00)
Family conflict t = 2.03
(df = 73, p = .05)
t = 2.12
(df = 31, p = .04)
t = 3.38
(df = 67, p = .00)
Family violence t = 2.52
(df = 81, p = .01)
t = 2.97
(df = 33, p = .01)
t = 2.10
(df = 72, p = .04)

Source: Andrea Mohr. "Family Variables Associated With Peer Victimization." Swiss Journal of Psychology, vol65, no. 2, 2006, pp. 111. Gale Psychology Collectionhttps://doi.org/10.1024/1421-0185.65.2.107. PDF download.