If you are looking for a number or a fact, you are often looking for a statistic. Statistics are usually tied to a time and a place and address the questions of "who" and "how much".
Stastics are often given in tables and charts or presented as a graph. Here is an example of a statistical table:
Source: U.S. Census Bureau; "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates"; generated by Kristin Briney; using American FactFinder; <http://factfinder2.census.gov>; (18 October 2013).
Data are the raw information that can be used for analysis or to create statistics. Data do not tell a story outright but can be used as evidence to come to a conclusion.
Data can take many forms but are increasingly machine readable. Here is an example of a dataset:
Source: Heneghan C, Thompson M, Billingsley M, Cohen D (2011) Data from: Medical-device recalls in the UK and the device-regulation process: retrospective review of safety notices and alerts. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.585t4