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Japanese Language and Culture: The Nuts & Bolts of Research: Resource Evaluation

Library and other resources for the study of Japanese Language and Culture

How To Evaluate Research Resources: The CRAP Test

Hemingway line art portrait"Every man [and woman] should have a built-in automatic crap detector operating inside him." -- Ernest Hemingway

Use the CRAP test to evaluate potential research resources:


  • How recent is the information?
  • How recently has the website been updated?
  • Is it current enough for your topic?


  • What kind of information is included in the resource?
  • Is content of the resource primarily opinion? Is it balanced?
  • Does the creator provide references or sources for data or quotations?


  • Who is the creator or author?
  • What are the credentials?
  • Who is the published or sponsor?
  • Are they reputable?
  • What is the publisher's interest (if any) in this information?
  • Are there advertisements on the website?

Purpose/Point of View:

  • Is this fact or opinion?
  • Is it biased?
  • Is the creator/author trying to sell you something?

Concept Mapping

Fauxtography: Identifying Fake Photos on the Internet

Identifying Fake News Sources

Periodical Publication Categories

Are Books Considered Scholarly Resources?

Identifying & Using Primary and Secondary Research Resources